A Place For Fun With Old Engines
This subject is from the 1940s...
Cooper Bessemer was one of the
major US based builders of large marine diesel engines for many
decades. The company, based in Mount Vernon, Ohio, dated back
to the 1830s and was a major builder of steam engines for industrial
and agricultural applications, with the Cooper Bessemer Corporation
name dating to the late 1920s. After 1965 the company was known
as Cooper Industries. It is now a component of Cameron Corporation.
The Cooper Bessemer Type LS was
a large direct reversing four stroke cycle marine engine with
15-1/2 inch bore and 22 inch stroke, built in six, seven, and
eight cylinder configurations, and in naturally aspriated and
turbocharged versions. Power ratings of up to 1400 horsepower
at 400 RPM were available from the eight cylinder naturally aspriated
unit, and outputs up to 2100 horsepower at 400 RPM could be achieved
by the turbocharged eight cylinder engine. For marine applications,
the engines were equipped with an internal Kingsbury type thrust
bearing housed in an extension of the engine frame and lubricated
by the engine main lubricating oil system.
The very heavily constructed Cooper
Bessemer Type LS engine incorporated some novel construction features,
including a cylinder block built in sections, that was bolted
to a full length engine base that supported the crankshaft, main
bearings, and bearing caps. The design of the engine reciprocating
components was unusual, with five compression rings and three
oil scraper rings all mounted on the piston above the bossing
of the piston pin. The liners were wet type, with rubber seals
at the top and bottom. Other design features were in common with
typical large marine and stationary engines of the period, including
the mounting of the intake, exhaust, and air starting valves in
removable valve cages. The injection valves controlling admission
of fuel to the cylinders were mounted in clusters on the "operating"
side of the engine (where the controls are located) and cylinders
could be cut out individually if needed.
The Type LS engine was developed
in the late 1930s and was widely used through the 1940s and into
the 1950s, its applications included military vessels such as
Army LT tugs as well as commercial tugs, passenger and cargo vessels.
Article and page design by Preston Cook, ©2009
Above: This is a view of the exhaust and intake
side of the six cylinder version of the Cooper Bessemer Type LS
diesel engine. This version of the engine typically was rated
at 1000 horsepower at 400 RPM.
Above: This is the "operating" side
of the six cylinder Type LS marine engine showing the gauge panel,
the governor in the center of the engine, the single lever operating
control for both speed and reversing, and the connecting rack
linkage between the governor and the two blocks of fuel injection
Above: Cooper Bessemer was one of the earliest
US users of turbocharging, which typically increased engine output
from 30% to 50%. This would allow the large eight cylinder version
of the Type LS engine to produce as much as 2100 horsepower at
400 revolutions per minute operating speed.
Above: This view shows the intake and exhaust
side of the eight cylinder turbocharged version of the Cooper
bessemer Type LS marine engine. The exhaust manifold leading to
the turbocharger is fitted with a heat shield, and the intake
manifold is much larger diameter than on the naturally aspirated
engine. There appears to be no aftercooler for the turbocharger.
The engine driven air compressor for starting and control functions
is mounted in the middle of the side of the engine.